Yes, matte foundations will dry your skin. Matte foundations will usually have some form of silica which helps to absorb oil. Unfortunately, for people who have dry skin, this is bad news.
In general, I don’t recommend people with dry skin to use matte foundations. This is because matte foundations will usually leave a caked-on appearance on dry skin. As discussed at the American Academy of Dermatology, skin without moisture ages faster. If you have dry skin, try to stick with a non-matte, dewy liquid foundation instead.